Coordinates: 42°30′N 19°18′E / 42.500°N 19.300°E / 42.500; 19.300
Montenegro (i/ˌmɒntᵻˈneɪɡroʊ/ MON-tən-AYG-roh or /ˌmɒntᵻˈniːɡroʊ/ MON-tən-EEG-roh or /ˌmɒntᵻˈnɛɡroʊ/ MON-tən-EG-roh; Montenegrin: Crna Gora / Црна Гора [t͡sr̩̂ːnaː ɡɔ̌ra], meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the south-east. Its capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Prijestonica, meaning the former Royal Capital City.
In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro). Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Montenegro is a country on the Adriatic coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Montenegro or Monte Negro, meaning "black mountain" in many Romance languages, may also refer to:
Montenegro is a novel written by Starling Lawrence. The book was first published in 1997 by Farrar Straus Giroux publishers. The novel is set in the mountains of Balkans of Montenegro. This was the author's first novel.
Publishers weekly in their review called it "a dashing novel set in the rocky heart of the Balkans at the turn of the century, but with emotions and political fervor that uncannily foreshadow the present-day Bosnian quagmire."The Los Angeles Times called it a "a subtle and moving novel, an old-fashioned narrative that addresses modern questions of ethnicity and belonging."
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